How can I speed up Bitcoin Core syncing? : Bitcoin
How can I speed up Bitcoin Core syncing? : Bitcoin
5 Steps to Install Bitcoin-Qt Faster - Bitcoin-en.com
Synchronizing Bitcoin Wallets Guide: An Overview : Coin Report
Running A Full Node - Bitcoin
How To Speed Up New Bitcoin Wallet Synchronization ...
I found a Bitcoin on a wallet on an old laptop I was going to throw out. I'ts taking forever to synchronise as it was last used about 2 years ago and it keeps overheating and switching itself off. Is there a way of speeding up the synch?
Hey all, I've been researching coins since 2017 and have gone through 100s of them in the last 3 years. I got introduced to blockchain via Bitcoin of course, analysed Ethereum thereafter and from that moment I have a keen interest in smart contact platforms. I’m passionate about Ethereum but I find Zilliqa to have a better risk reward ratio. Especially because Zilliqa has found an elegant balance between being secure, decentralised and scalable in my opinion.
Below I post my analysis why from all the coins I went through I’m most bullish on Zilliqa (yes I went through Tezos, EOS, NEO, VeChain, Harmony, Algorand, Cardano etc.). Note that this is not investment advice and although it's a thorough analysis there is obviously some bias involved. Looking forward to what you all think!
Fun fact: the name Zilliqa is a play on ‘silica’ silicon dioxide which means “Silicon for the high-throughput consensus computer.”
This post is divided into (i) Technology, (ii) Business & Partnerships, and (iii) Marketing & Community. I’ve tried to make the technology part readable for a broad audience. If you’ve ever tried understanding the inner workings of Bitcoin and Ethereum you should be able to grasp most parts. Otherwise just skim through and once you are zoning out head to the next part.
Technology and some more:
Introduction The technology is one of the main reasons why I’m so bullish on Zilliqa. First thing you see on their website is: “Zilliqa is a high-performance, high-security blockchain platform for enterprises and next-generation applications.” These are some bold statements.
Before we deep dive into the technology let’s take a step back in time first as they have quite the history. The initial research paper from which Zilliqa originated dates back to August 2016: Elastico: A Secure Sharding Protocol For Open Blockchains where Loi Luu (Kyber Network) is one of the co-authors. Other ideas that led to the development of what Zilliqa has become today are: Bitcoin-NG, collective signing CoSi, ByzCoin and Omniledger.
The technical white paper was made public in August 2017 and since then they have achieved everything stated in the white paper and also created their own open source intermediate level smart contract language called Scilla (functional programming language similar to OCaml) too.
Mainnet is live since end of January 2019 with daily transaction rate growing continuously. About a week ago mainnet reached 5 million transactions, 500.000+ addresses in total along with 2400 nodes keeping the network decentralised and secure. Circulating supply is nearing 11 billion and currently only mining rewards are left. Maximum supply is 21 billion with annual inflation being 7.13% currently and will only decrease with time.
Zilliqa realised early on that the usage of public cryptocurrencies and smart contracts were increasing but decentralised, secure and scalable alternatives were lacking in the crypto space. They proposed to apply sharding onto a public smart contract blockchain where the transaction rate increases almost linear with the increase in amount of nodes. More nodes = higher transaction throughput and increased decentralisation. Sharding comes in many forms and Zilliqa uses network-, transaction- and computational sharding. Network sharding opens up the possibility of using transaction- and computational sharding on top. Zilliqa does not use state sharding for now. We’ll come back to this later.
Before we continue disecting how Zilliqa achieves such from a technological standpoint it’s good to keep in mind that a blockchain being decentralised and secure and scalable is still one of the main hurdles in allowing widespread usage of decentralised networks. In my opinion this needs to be solved first before blockchains can get to the point where they can create and add large scale value. So I invite you to read the next section to grasp the underlying fundamentals. Because after all these premises need to be true otherwise there isn’t a fundamental case to be bullish on Zilliqa, right?
Down the rabbit hole
How have they achieved this? Let’s define the basics first: key players on Zilliqa are the users and the miners. A user is anybody who uses the blockchain to transfer funds or run smart contracts. Miners are the (shard) nodes in the network who run the consensus protocol and get rewarded for their service in Zillings (ZIL). The mining network is divided into several smaller networks called shards, which is also referred to as ‘network sharding’. Miners subsequently are randomly assigned to a shard by another set of miners called DS (Directory Service) nodes. The regular shards process transactions and the outputs of these shards are eventually combined by the DS shard as they reach consensus on the final state. More on how these DS shards reach consensus (via pBFT) will be explained later on.
The Zilliqa network produces two types of blocks: DS blocks and Tx blocks. One DS Block consists of 100 Tx Blocks. And as previously mentioned there are two types of nodes concerned with reaching consensus: shard nodes and DS nodes. Becoming a shard node or DS node is being defined by the result of a PoW cycle (Ethash) at the beginning of the DS Block. All candidate mining nodes compete with each other and run the PoW (Proof-of-Work) cycle for 60 seconds and the submissions achieving the highest difficulty will be allowed on the network. And to put it in perspective: the average difficulty for one DS node is ~ 2 Th/s equaling 2.000.000 Mh/s or 55 thousand+ GeForce GTX 1070 / 8 GB GPUs at 35.4 Mh/s. Each DS Block 10 new DS nodes are allowed. And a shard node needs to provide around 8.53 GH/s currently (around 240 GTX 1070s). Dual mining ETH/ETC and ZIL is possible and can be done via mining software such as Phoenix and Claymore. There are pools and if you have large amounts of hashing power (Ethash) available you could mine solo.
The PoW cycle of 60 seconds is a peak performance and acts as an entry ticket to the network. The entry ticket is called a sybil resistance mechanism and makes it incredibly hard for adversaries to spawn lots of identities and manipulate the network with these identities. And after every 100 Tx Blocks which corresponds to roughly 1,5 hour this PoW process repeats. In between these 1,5 hour no PoW needs to be done meaning Zilliqa’s energy consumption to keep the network secure is low. For more detailed information on how mining works click here. Okay, hats off to you. You have made it this far. Before we go any deeper down the rabbit hole we first must understand why Zilliqa goes through all of the above technicalities and understand a bit more what a blockchain on a more fundamental level is. Because the core of Zilliqa’s consensus protocol relies on the usage of pBFT (practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance) we need to know more about state machines and their function. Navigate to Viewblock, a Zilliqa block explorer, and just come back to this article. We will use this site to navigate through a few concepts.
We have established that Zilliqa is a public and distributed blockchain. Meaning that everyone with an internet connection can send ZILs, trigger smart contracts etc. and there is no central authority who fully controls the network. Zilliqa and other public and distributed blockchains (like Bitcoin and Ethereum) can also be defined as state machines.
Taking the liberty of paraphrasing examples and definitions given by Samuel Brooks’ medium article, he describes the definition of a blockchain (like Zilliqa) as:
“A peer-to-peer, append-only datastore that uses consensus to synchronise cryptographically-secure data”.
Next he states that: >“blockchains are fundamentally systems for managing valid state transitions”.* For some more context, I recommend reading the whole medium article to get a better grasp of the definitions and understanding of state machines. Nevertheless, let’s try to simplify and compile it into a single paragraph. Take traffic lights as an example: all its states (red, amber and green) are predefined, all possible outcomes are known and it doesn’t matter if you encounter the traffic light today or tomorrow. It will still behave the same. Managing the states of a traffic light can be done by triggering a sensor on the road or pushing a button resulting in one traffic lights’ state going from green to red (via amber) and another light from red to green.
With public blockchains like Zilliqa this isn’t so straightforward and simple. It started with block #1 almost 1,5 years ago and every 45 seconds or so a new block linked to the previous block is being added. Resulting in a chain of blocks with transactions in it that everyone can verify from block #1 to the current #647.000+ block. The state is ever changing and the states it can find itself in are infinite. And while the traffic light might work together in tandem with various other traffic lights, it’s rather insignificant comparing it to a public blockchain. Because Zilliqa consists of 2400 nodes who need to work together to achieve consensus on what the latest valid state is while some of these nodes may have latency or broadcast issues, drop offline or are deliberately trying to attack the network etc.
Now go back to the Viewblock page take a look at the amount of transaction, addresses, block and DS height and then hit refresh. Obviously as expected you see new incremented values on one or all parameters. And how did the Zilliqa blockchain manage to transition from a previous valid state to the latest valid state? By using pBFT to reach consensus on the latest valid state.
After having obtained the entry ticket, miners execute pBFT to reach consensus on the ever changing state of the blockchain. pBFT requires a series of network communication between nodes, and as such there is no GPU involved (but CPU). Resulting in the total energy consumed to keep the blockchain secure, decentralised and scalable being low.
pBFT stands for practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance and is an optimisation on the Byzantine Fault Tolerant algorithm. To quote Blockonomi: “In the context of distributed systems, Byzantine Fault Tolerance is the ability of a distributed computer network to function as desired and correctly reach a sufficient consensus despite malicious components (nodes) of the system failing or propagating incorrect information to other peers.” Zilliqa is such a distributed computer network and depends on the honesty of the nodes (shard and DS) to reach consensus and to continuously update the state with the latest block. If pBFT is a new term for you I can highly recommend the Blockonomi article.
The idea of pBFT was introduced in 1999 - one of the authors even won a Turing award for it - and it is well researched and applied in various blockchains and distributed systems nowadays. If you want more advanced information than the Blockonomi link provides click here. And if you’re in between Blockonomi and University of Singapore read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 2 dating from October 2017. Quoting from the Zilliqa tech whitepaper: “pBFT relies upon a correct leader (which is randomly selected) to begin each phase and proceed when the sufficient majority exists. In case the leader is byzantine it can stall the entire consensus protocol. To address this challenge, pBFT offers a view change protocol to replace the byzantine leader with another one.”
pBFT can tolerate ⅓ of the nodes being dishonest (offline counts as Byzantine = dishonest) and the consensus protocol will function without stalling or hiccups. Once there are more than ⅓ of dishonest nodes but no more than ⅔ the network will be stalled and a view change will be triggered to elect a new DS leader. Only when more than ⅔ of the nodes are dishonest (>66%) double spend attacks become possible.
If the network stalls no transactions can be processed and one has to wait until a new honest leader has been elected. When the mainnet was just launched and in its early phases, view changes happened regularly. As of today the last stalling of the network - and view change being triggered - was at the end of October 2019.
Another benefit of using pBFT for consensus besides low energy is the immediate finality it provides. Once your transaction is included in a block and the block is added to the chain it’s done. Lastly, take a look at this article where three types of finality are being defined: probabilistic, absolute and economic finality. Zilliqa falls under the absolute finality (just like Tendermint for example). Although lengthy already we skipped through some of the inner workings from Zilliqa’s consensus: read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 3 and you will be close to having a complete picture on it. Enough about PoW, sybil resistance mechanism, pBFT etc. Another thing we haven’t looked at yet is the amount of decentralisation.
Currently there are four shards, each one of them consisting of 600 nodes. 1 shard with 600 so called DS nodes (Directory Service - they need to achieve a higher difficulty than shard nodes) and 1800 shard nodes of which 250 are shard guards (centralised nodes controlled by the team). The amount of shard guards has been steadily declining from 1200 in January 2019 to 250 as of May 2020. On the Viewblock statistics you can see that many of the nodes are being located in the US but those are only the (CPU parts of the) shard nodes who perform pBFT. There is no data from where the PoW sources are coming. And when the Zilliqa blockchain starts reaching their transaction capacity limit, a network upgrade needs to be executed to lift the current cap of maximum 2400 nodes to allow more nodes and formation of more shards which will allow to network to keep on scaling according to demand. Besides shard nodes there are also seed nodes. The main role of seed nodes is to serve as direct access points (for end users and clients) to the core Zilliqa network that validates transactions. Seed nodes consolidate transaction requests and forward these to the lookup nodes (another type of nodes) for distribution to the shards in the network. Seed nodes also maintain the entire transaction history and the global state of the blockchain which is needed to provide services such as block explorers. Seed nodes in the Zilliqa network are comparable to Infura on Ethereum.
The seed nodes were first only operated by Zilliqa themselves, exchanges and Viewblock. Operators of seed nodes like exchanges had no incentive to open them for the greater public.They were centralised at first. Decentralisation at the seed nodes level has been steadily rolled out since March 2020 ( Zilliqa Improvement Proposal 3 ). Currently the amount of seed nodes is being increased, they are public facing and at the same time PoS is applied to incentivize seed node operators and make it possible for ZIL holders to stake and earn passive yields. Important distinction: seed nodes are not involved with consensus! That is still PoW as entry ticket and pBFT for the actual consensus.
5% of the block rewards are being assigned to seed nodes (from the beginning in 2019) and those are being used to pay out ZIL stakers.The 5% block rewards with an annual yield of 10.03% translates to roughly 610 MM ZILs in total that can be staked. Exchanges use the custodial variant of staking and wallets like Moonlet will use the non custodial version (starting in Q3 2020). Staking is being done by sending ZILs to a smart contract created by Zilliqa and audited by Quantstamp.
With a high amount of DS & shard nodes and seed nodes becoming more decentralised too, Zilliqa qualifies for the label of decentralised in my opinion.
Generalised: programming languages can be divided into being ‘object oriented’ or ‘functional’. Here is an ELI5 given by software development academy: > “all programmes have two basic components, data – what the programme knows – and behaviour – what the programme can do with that data. So object-oriented programming states that combining data and related behaviours in one place, is called “object”, which makes it easier to understand how a particular program works. On the other hand, functional programming argues that data and behaviour are different things and should be separated to ensure their clarity.”
Scilla is on the functional side and shares similarities with OCaml: > OCaml is a general purpose programming language with an emphasis on expressiveness and safety. It has an advanced type system that helps catch your mistakes without getting in your way. It's used in environments where a single mistake can cost millions and speed matters, is supported by an active community, and has a rich set of libraries and development tools. For all its power, OCaml is also pretty simple, which is one reason it's often used as a teaching language.
Scilla is blockchain agnostic, can be implemented onto other blockchains as well, is recognised by academics and won a so called Distinguished Artifact Award award at the end of last year.
One of the reasons why the Zilliqa team decided to create their own programming language focused on preventing smart contract vulnerabilities safety is that adding logic on a blockchain, programming, means that you cannot afford to make mistakes. Otherwise it could cost you. It’s all great and fun blockchains being immutable but updating your code because you found a bug isn’t the same as with a regular web application for example. And with smart contracts it inherently involves cryptocurrencies in some form thus value.
Another difference with programming languages on a blockchain is gas. Every transaction you do on a smart contract platform like Zilliqa for Ethereum costs gas. With gas you basically pay for computational costs. Sending a ZIL from address A to address B costs 0.001 ZIL currently. Smart contracts are more complex, often involve various functions and require more gas (if gas is a new concept click here ).
So with Scilla, similar to Solidity, you need to make sure that “every function in your smart contract will run as expected without hitting gas limits. An improper resource analysis may lead to situations where funds may get stuck simply because a part of the smart contract code cannot be executed due to gas limits. Such constraints are not present in traditional software systems”.Scilla design story part 1
Some examples of smart contract issues you’d want to avoid are: leaking funds, ‘unexpected changes to critical state variables’ (example: someone other than you setting his or her address as the owner of the smart contract after creation) or simply killing a contract.
Scilla also allows for formal verification. Wikipedia to the rescue:
In the context of hardware and software systems, formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of intended algorithms underlying a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, using formal methods of mathematics.
Formal verification can be helpful in proving the correctness of systems such as: cryptographic protocols, combinational circuits, digital circuits with internal memory, and software expressed as source code.
“Scilla is being developed hand-in-hand with formalization of its semantics and its embedding into the Coq proof assistant — a state-of-the art tool for mechanized proofs about properties of programs.”
Simply put, with Scilla and accompanying tooling developers can be mathematically sure and proof that the smart contract they’ve written does what he or she intends it to do.
Smart contract on a sharded environment and state sharding
There is one more topic I’d like to touch on: smart contract execution in a sharded environment (and what is the effect of state sharding). This is a complex topic. I’m not able to explain it any easier than what is posted here. But I will try to compress the post into something easy to digest.
Earlier on we have established that Zilliqa can process transactions in parallel due to network sharding. This is where the linear scalability comes from. We can define simple transactions: a transaction from address A to B (Category 1), a transaction where a user interacts with one smart contract (Category 2) and the most complex ones where triggering a transaction results in multiple smart contracts being involved (Category 3). The shards are able to process transactions on their own without interference of the other shards. With Category 1 transactions that is doable, with Category 2 transactions sometimes if that address is in the same shard as the smart contract but with Category 3 you definitely need communication between the shards. Solving that requires to make a set of communication rules the protocol needs to follow in order to process all transactions in a generalised fashion.
There is no strict defined roadmap but here are topics being worked on. And via the Zilliqa website there is also more information on the projects they are working on.
Business & Partnerships It’s not only technology in which Zilliqa seems to be excelling as their ecosystem has been expanding and starting to grow rapidly. The project is on a mission to provide OpenFinance (OpFi) to the world and Singapore is the right place to be due to its progressive regulations and futuristic thinking. Singapore has taken a proactive approach towards cryptocurrencies by introducing the Payment Services Act 2019 (PS Act). Among other things, the PS Act will regulate intermediaries dealing with certain cryptocurrencies, with a particular focus on consumer protection and anti-money laundering. It will also provide a stable regulatory licensing and operating framework for cryptocurrency entities, effectively covering all crypto businesses and exchanges based in Singapore. According to PWC 82% of the surveyed executives in Singapore reported blockchain initiatives underway and 13% of them have already brought the initiatives live to the market. There is also an increasing list of organisations that are starting to provide digital payment services. Moreover, Singaporean blockchain developers Building Cities Beyond has recently created an innovation $15 million grant to encourage development on its ecosystem. This all suggest that Singapore tries to position itself as (one of) the leading blockchain hubs in the world.
Zilliqa seems to already taking advantage of this and recently helped launch Hg Exchange on their platform, together with financial institutions PhillipCapital, PrimePartners and Fundnel. Hg Exchange, which is now approved by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS), uses smart contracts to represent digital assets. Through Hg Exchange financial institutions worldwide can use Zilliqa's safe-by-design smart contracts to enable the trading of private equities. For example, think of companies such as Grab, AirBnB, SpaceX that are not available for public trading right now. Hg Exchange will allow investors to buy shares of private companies & unicorns and capture their value before an IPO. Anquan, the main company behind Zilliqa, has also recently announced that they became a partner and shareholder in TEN31 Bank, which is a fully regulated bank allowing for tokenization of assets and is aiming to bridge the gap between conventional banking and the blockchain world. If STOs, the tokenization of assets, and equity trading will continue to increase, then Zilliqa’s public blockchain would be the ideal candidate due to its strategic positioning, partnerships, regulatory compliance and the technology that is being built on top of it.
What is also very encouraging is their focus on banking the un(der)banked. They are launching a stablecoin basket starting with XSGD. As many of you know, stablecoins are currently mostly used for trading. However, Zilliqa is actively trying to broaden the use case of stablecoins. I recommend everybody to read this text that Amrit Kumar wrote (one of the co-founders). These stablecoins will be integrated in the traditional markets and bridge the gap between the crypto world and the traditional world. This could potentially revolutionize and legitimise the crypto space if retailers and companies will for example start to use stablecoins for payments or remittances, instead of it solely being used for trading.
Zilliqa also released their DeFi strategic roadmap (dating November 2019) which seems to be aligning well with their OpFi strategy. A non-custodial DEX is coming to Zilliqa made by Switcheo which allows cross-chain trading (atomic swaps) between ETH, EOS and ZIL based tokens. They also signed a Memorandum of Understanding for a (soon to be announced) USD stablecoin. And as Zilliqa is all about regulations and being compliant, I’m speculating on it to be a regulated USD stablecoin. Furthermore, XSGD is already created and visible on block explorer and XIDR (Indonesian Stablecoin) is also coming soon via StraitsX. Here also an overview of the Tech Stack for Financial Applications from September 2019. Further quoting Amrit Kumar on this:
There are two basic building blocks in DeFi/OpFi though: 1) stablecoins as you need a non-volatile currency to get access to this market and 2) a dex to be able to trade all these financial assets. The rest are build on top of these blocks.
So far, together with our partners and community, we have worked on developing these building blocks with XSGD as a stablecoin. We are working on bringing a USD-backed stablecoin as well. We will soon have a decentralised exchange developed by Switcheo. And with HGX going live, we are also venturing into the tokenization space. More to come in the future.”*
Additionally, they also have this ZILHive initiative that injects capital into projects. There have been already 6 waves of various teams working on infrastructure, innovation and research, and they are not from ASEAN or Singapore only but global: see Grantees breakdown by country. Over 60 project teams from over 20 countries have contributed to Zilliqa's ecosystem. This includes individuals and teams developing wallets, explorers, developer toolkits, smart contract testing frameworks, dapps, etc. As some of you may know, Unstoppable Domains (UD) blew up when they launched on Zilliqa. UD aims to replace cryptocurrency addresses with a human readable name and allows for uncensorable websites. Zilliqa will probably be the only one able to handle all these transactions onchain due to ability to scale and its resulting low fees which is why the UD team launched this on Zilliqa in the first place. Furthermore, Zilliqa also has a strong emphasis on security, compliance, and privacy, which is why they partnered with companies like Elliptic, ChainSecurity (part of PwC Switzerland), and Incognito. Their sister company Aqilliz (Zilliqa spelled backwards) focuses on revolutionizing the digital advertising space and is doing interesting things like using Zilliqa to track outdoor digital ads with companies like Foodpanda.
Zilliqa is listed on nearly all major exchanges, having several different fiat-gateways and recently have been added to Binance’s margin trading and futures trading with really good volume. They also have a very impressive team with good credentials and experience. They dont just have “tech people”. They have a mix of tech people, business people, marketeers, scientists, and more. Naturally, it's good to have a mix of people with different skill sets if you work in the crypto space.
Marketing & Community
Zilliqa has a very strong community. If you just follow their Twitter their engagement is much higher for a coin that has approximately 80k followers. They also have been ‘coin of the day’ by LunarCrush many times. LunarCrush tracks real-time cryptocurrency value and social data. According to their data it seems Zilliqa has a more fundamental and deeper understanding of marketing and community engagement than almost all other coins. While almost all coins have been a bit frozen in the last months, Zilliqa seems to be on its own bull run. It was somewhere in the 100s a few months ago and is currently ranked #46 on CoinGecko. Their official Telegram also has over 20k people and is very active, and their community channel which is over 7k now is more active and larger than many other official channels. Their local communities) also seem to be growing.
Moreover, their community started ‘Zillacracy’ together with the Zilliqa core team ( see www.zillacracy.com ). It’s a community run initiative where people from all over the world are now helping with marketing and development on Zilliqa. Since its launch in February 2020 they have been doing a lot and will also run their own non custodial seed node for staking. This seed node will also allow them to start generating revenue for them to become a self sustaining entity that could potentially scale up to become a decentralized company working in parallel with the Zilliqa core team. Comparing it to all the other smart contract platforms (e.g. Cardano, EOS, Tezos etc.) they don't seem to have started a similar initiatives (correct me if I’m wrong though). This suggest in my opinion that these other smart contract platforms do not fully understand how to utilize the ‘power of the community’. This is something you cannot ‘buy with money’ and gives many projects in the space a disadvantage.
Zilliqa also released two social products called SocialPay and Zeeves. SocialPay allows users to earn ZILs while tweeting with a specific hashtag. They have recently used it in partnership with the Singapore Red Cross for a marketing campaign after their initial pilot program. It seems like a very valuable social product with a good use case. I can see a lot of traditional companies entering the space through this product, which they seem to suggest will happen. Tokenizing hashtags with smart contracts to get network effect is a very smart and innovative idea.
Regarding Zeeves, this is a tipping bot for Telegram. They already have 1000s of signups and they plan to keep upgrading it for more and more people to use it (e.g. they recently have added a quiz features). They also use it during AMAs to reward people in real time. It’s a very smart approach to grow their communities and get familiar with ZIL. I can see this becoming very big on Telegram. This tool suggests, again, that the Zilliqa team has a deeper understanding what the crypto space and community needs and is good at finding the right innovative tools to grow and scale.
To be honest, I haven’t covered everything (i’m also reaching the character limited haha). So many updates happening lately that it's hard to keep up, such as the International Monetary Fund mentioning Zilliqa in their report, custodial and non-custodial Staking, Binance Margin, Futures & Widget, entering the Indian market, and more. The Head of Marketing Colin Miles has also released this as an overview of what is coming next. And last but not least, Vitalik Buterin has been mentioning Zilliqa lately acknowledging Zilliqa and mentioning that both projects have a lot of room to grow. There is much more info of course and a good part of it has been served to you on a silver platter. I invite you to continue researching by yourself :-) And if you have any comments or questions please post here!
[M] - Mandatory. The update contains security fixes or contains fork update (wallet will stop working after some height reach). IMPORTANT: The latest version is 0.5.0.1 (contains minor update after 0.5.0.1)
Meet Ryo Currency 0.5.0.0 update - Fermi Paradox. In this update we will discuss 3 updates and do one announcement in the source code, 2 of them will be the first among any Cryptonote projects:
Wallet Scan speedup thanks to ECC and multi-threading library. Increased wallet scan speed when processing blockchain. New Elliptic Curve Cryptography library combined with implemented multi-threading that ustilises user's CPU results in reduced block verification up to 5x times compared with previous modes.
Plateau emission curve. Ryo's block reward changes every 6-months following a "Plateau Curve" distribution model. The modification of emission curve was initiated and debated with Ryo community. The following fork will finalise and implement that change.Notice: the difference between previous and this model will take effect at block height 394470.Read more about Ryo plateau emission curve
Various code edits, refactoring and minor fixes. There are multiple code fixes and edits that could be considered minor when looked in particular, but when looked in general - result in more than 35.000 lines of code being changed making core code more clean, optimised and bugfixed.Check Ryo Github repository
level 0 - everyone can look into your wallet and know your transactions (BTC level)
level 1 - nobody can see inside of your wallet, but each note has a serial number (yes, this is real life money level and in CN coins is implemented using stealth addresses)
level 2 - notes you have don't have a serial number to a guy that gave you one, and no-one can't know if you spent it later (In CN coins it is implemented using ring signatures - which are the failing ones)
What we are saying is over the past year or two, researches stripped ring signatures of their privacy properties so much, that we think it is no longer fair to say that we (or Monero, which is even worse since it has even smaller ring size compared to Ryo) or any other CN project that uses it - meet the level 2 of privacy. So, summarising in non-tech words what does it mean - when you are doing a transaction and want to imagine how it looks like in system:
bitcoin - "I spent output 10, worth 1 BTC and output 22, worth 0.5 BTC"
ring signature (current CN coins) - "I spent output 10, 14, 18 or 20, and output 16, 18, 19, or 22"
Please update your wallets before this block, or your previous wallet will stop synchronising after the block 362000:
Ryo Wallet Atom: download latest Atom installer when annouced update to version 1.5.0, start it and perform reinstall.
Ryo cli binaries: download or compile from source updated binaries from Github version 0.5.0.0 and unzip it, and place your wallet key files in new folder.
Pool owners and exchanges are notified about updating their nodes to the latest version before the fork.
Questions you might have regarding the fork:
What will happen with mining algorithm - will it change or what does "fork" mean - coin is split on 2? No, "fork" basically means major code update that is being activated on a specified block height. There will be no mining algorithm change or chainsplit.
Ryo roadmap indicates that you had in plans reaching 100x ring sizes. In light of future introduction of ZK-proofs does it mean that this is not aplicable? Yes, we eventually will be replacing ring signature technology on ZK-proofs, which is more fundamental change than trying to "beat dead horse" with ring signatures.
What about atomic swaps? Ryo roadmap indicates it being planned, is it still possible with introducing ZK-proofs? Yes it is! And we aim to implement this feature after all necessary updates in core code. It is important to have everything implemented and tested before adding that feature.
What is a ZK-proof? ZK stands for zero-knowledge. In cryptography, a zero-knowledge proof is a method by which one party (the prover) can prove to another party (the verifier) that they know a value x, without conveying any information apart from the fact that they know the value xYou can read more about zero-knowledge proof (with real life examples) here.
Will blockchain grow faster (what about tx size) when moving to ZK-proofs? Overall, transactions and blocks using ZK-proofs will be even smaller in size than pre-fork ring signatures with bulletproofs! Plus it enables transactions to be aggregated together - this is obviously a major scalability gain for Ryo Currency.
I heard or as far I understand that ZK-proofs are somewhat less private? Does it mean that you are not privacy-oriented project anymore? No, in short - we decided to do this change to second gen. ZK-proofs, because ring signatures as is are too weak on providing enough for us default level of privacy and overall are considered now as an obsolete technology. So we don't want to say that we have a privacy level of 2, when research shows that it is not.
Ok, after 0.5.0.0 fork - will we be using uniform payment ID-s to do transactions on exchanges? Yes. There are no changes regarding usage of payment ID-s and integrated addresses. We will be still using ring signatures, but also are announcing our goal on moving to ZK-proofs.
What else is there in plans/ideas you have in development of Ryo? Besides all plans and development ongoing with Ryo (wallets, infrastructure, core code and researches) we also developed and improve Mining platform RagerX. It is a all-in-one mining platform that unites a miner, pplns pool, OS, GUI flasher utillity, pool frontend and has advanced social features as well as 2 level affiliate program. In observable future we will add Cryptonight-GPU mining possibillity.We are implementing RagerX so people can mine CPU coins and Ryo simultaneously. Which means more eyes on Ryo, especially from fresh members.
Are the ring signature issues that have been discovered are applicable to other ring signature based coins like Monero? Yes.
Invite to the Reddit 2019 Directory of VPN service providers. In this directory site, we're taking a look at a few of the absolute best business VPN provider on the Internet like ExpressVPN, CyberGhost, IPVanish, Hotspot Shield, Private Internet Access and others. Instead of taking a look at the large range of free suppliers, which often have a lot of limits (and dubious loyalties), we are looking at those suppliers who charge a couple of dollars a month, however put your interests first, instead of those of shadowy marketers and sponsors. We've looked at more than 20 elements including variety of server locations, client software, devoted and vibrant IP, bandwidth caps, security, logging, client support and rate. Let's take a look at each of our suppliers below in a little bit more depth. ExpressVPN Number of IP addresses: 30,000 Number of servers: 3,000+. Number of server locations: 160. Variety of synchronised connections: 5. Country/Jurisdiction: British Virgin Islands. 94+ countries. 3 months Free with 1-year strategy. ExpressVPN likewise uses a 30-day money-back guarantee, and has outstanding procedure assistance. While few will utilize PPTP (unless there specify requirements), the extra support of SSTP and L2TP/IPSec might be welcome to some users. We like the quality of their setup guides, and the in-depth details in their Frequently Asked Question. The ExpressVPN got points from us for their support of Bitcoin as a payment technique, and their trustworthy and easy-to-use connection kill switch feature. The company has actually stayed in business because 2009, and has a significant network of fast VPN servers spread throughout 94 nations. Their finest plan is priced at simply $6.67 monthly for an annual plan that includes 3 months complimentary. ExpressVPN's dedication to privacy is a standout feature. SEE ALL EXPRESSVPN PLANS. NordVPN. Number of IP addresses: 5,000. Variety of servers: 5000+ servers. Variety of server locations: 61. Country/Jurisdiction: Panama. 60+ nations. $ 2.99/ month (75% discount rate) for a 3-year plan. NordVPN in-depth review and hands-on screening. NordVPN is among our top-performing VPN companies. They even use a generous simultaneous connection count, with six synchronised connections through their network, where almost everyone else deals five or less. NordVPN's network isn't as big as some of their competitors, so if you're attempting to obfuscate your tracks, you might want a company with more servers. Otherwise, this business is plainly offering a winning offering. Their finest plan is 1-year membership strategy: $6.99 ($ 83.88). While their month-to-month price of $11.95 is at the high-end of the spectrum, their annual price of $83.88 is lower than a lot of our competitors. And yes, they also have a full 30-day refund policy. NordVPN likewise provides a dedicated IP choice, for those looking for a different level of VPN connection. They do provide $2.99/ month (75% discount rate) for a 3-year strategy. SEE ALL NORDVPN PREPARES. cg-22-1. CyberGhost VPN. Number of IP addresses: 2,800. Number of servers: over 3,700 worldwide. Variety of server locations: 115. 24/7 support action. $ 2.75/ month (79% discount) for a 3-year plan. CyberGhost thorough evaluation and hands-on screening. CyberGhost has actually been around because 2011 and has come out strongly as an advocate of "civil rights, a complimentary society, and an uncensored Internet culture." We truly liked how the company specifically showcases, on their Website, how folks usually prevented from accessing such essential services as Facebook and YouTube can bring those services into their lives by means of a VPN. The company has strong Linux assistance, supports VPN through routers, and has a solution for the popular Kodi media player. They mark off all the boxes on procedure support and get congratulations for offering a connection kill switch function, in addition to supporting P2P and BitTorrent in most nations. Still, the few extra dollars deserve it. We liked how the business offers custom-made app security, IPV5 support and DNS, IP, and WebRTC leakage prevention. CyberGhost also picked up points for preserving privacy by not logging connection information. SEE ALL CYBERGHOST VPN PREPARES. ipvanish-300x250usjc. IPVanish VPN. Variety of IP addresses: 40,000+. Variety of servers: 900. Number of server locations: 60. Country/Jurisdiction: United States. $ 4.87/ month (60% discount) for a 1-year strategy. A big win for IPVanish is the reality that the business keeps no logs. Absolutely no. We also like the business's stance towards privacy. They even supply support to EFF, the Electronic Frontier Foundation, a not-for-profit at the front lines of securing online personal privacy. An unique feature of IPVanish, and one we're extremely interested by, is the VPN's assistance of Kodi, the open-source media streaming app that was as soon as referred to as XBMC. Any severe media fan has used or constructed Kodi or XBMC into a media player, and the integrated IPVanish Kodi plugin provides access to media worldwide. At $7.50/ month and $58.49 for a year, they're undoubtedly attempting to move you towards their annual program. We awarded the business congratulations for Bitcoin support, and their money-back guarantee. We're a little disappointed that they just allow a 7-day trial, instead of a full 30-days. The company is generous, with five simultaneous connections. We also liked their connection eliminate switch feature, a must for anyone serious about staying confidential while browsing. SEE ALL IPVANISH VPN PREPARES. purelogo. PureVPN. Variety of IP addresses: 300,000. Variety of servers: 2000. Variety of server locations: 180. Country/Jurisdiction: Hong Kong. $ 3.33/ month (70% discount rate) for a 1-year plan. PureVPN does not log connection details. We like that they provide a 30-day refund policy. They got perk points because, essential for a few of our readers, PureVPN supports bitcoin payments and you're going like their fast performance. Also, you can grow with them. If after a long time, you require to scale up to business-level plans, the business has offerings for development. Prices is middle-of-the-road, at $10.95 each month and $35,88 annually. Finally, we like that PureVPN has both Kodi and a Chromebook solution called out right on their Web page. In addition, PureVPN earns the distinction of being the very first VPN service we've seen to totally implement the GDPR. SEE ALL PUREVPN PLANS. strongvpn-logo-1. StrongVPN. Variety of IP addresses: 59,500. Variety of servers: 689. Variety of server places: 70. $ 5.83/ month (42% discount rate) for a 1-year strategy. StrongVPN blasts onto our favorites list with outstanding facilities and good price efficiency. As with our other favorites, StrongVPN has a strong no-logging policy. Since VPN is all about securing your personal privacy, that's a place the savvy VPN service providers can get points. Strong likewise picks up congratulations for its large base of IP addresses, which also helps protect your anonymity. They have a strong collection of servers and around the world locations. For those of you who need a devoted IP, you can get one from the company, however you'll require to contact support to get assist setting it up. Among StrongVPN's greatest strengths is the company's network. They own and operate their entire network infrastructure, which implies they have no externally-dictated limitations on bandwidth or the type of traffic enabled on the network. This gives you the self-confidence that you'll have the ability to power through your work. StrongVPN's monthly price of $10 is in the middle of the pack, however their yearly cost of $69.99 is amongst the most affordable of our contenders. SEE ALL STRONGVPN PLANS. symantec-logo-100268876-large. Norton Secure VPN. Number of countries: 29. Variety of servers: 1500. Variety of server areas: 200. Country/Jurisdiction: US. $ 39.99 for the first 12 months. Symantec, long understood for quality in security items, has a fairly minimal offering in its VPN item. It does not support P2P or BitTorrent, it does not have a kill switch feature, and it does not support Linux, routers or set leading boxes. On the other hand, it's a VPN product from Symantec, a publicly-traded business with a clearly recorded management team. In many software application classifications, this might not be a notable advantage, but in the VPN world, where most companies have shadowy management and impossible-to-track-down ownership structures, it's revitalizing to understand exactly who we're handling and understand through independent sources (the company's annual filing, the SEC, and analyst reports) that the company is reliable and liable. SEE ALL NORTON SECURE VPN PLANS. hotspot. Hotspot Guard. Variety of IP addresses: 50,000. Number of servers: 2500. Number of server places: 26. $ 2.99/ month (77% discount rate) for a 3-year strategy. HotSpot Shield is an item that has actually had some ups and downs in regards to our editorial protection. Back in 2016, they picked up some really favorable protection based upon founder David Gorodyansky remarks about protecting user personal privacy. Then, in 2017, a personal privacy group implicated the company of spying on user traffic, an accusation the company flatly denies. Lastly, just this year, ZDNet uncovered a flaw in the company's software that exposed users. Thankfully, that was repaired right away. So what are we to make from HotSpot Guard? Frankly, the debate caused us to drop them from our directory for a while. However they approached us, made a strong case for their ongoing dedication to privacy, and we chose to give them another chance. Here's the good news. They use one of the very best money-back warranty we have actually seen for VPN services, a complete 45-days. They support Windows, Mac, iOS, and Android, along with plugins for Chrome and Firefox. They also support routers and media players (but not Linux). And, as a reward, they have a connection kill switch feature. The business does not support P2P or BitTorrent-- and they also don't support the OpenVPN. Every other supplier does, but HotSpot Shield limits its protocol assistance to L2TP/IPSec and something they call Hydra, an enhancement of the transport protocol. Overall, the company did impress us with their attention to personal privacy. They have actually a released personal privacy canary. They likewise informed us, "We have actually integrated in malware, phishing and spam security. Our dedication to our users is that Hotspot Guard will never ever keep, log, or share your real IP address.". SEE ALL HOTSPOT GUARD PLANS. hidemyass300x250usjc. Conceal My Ass. Number of IP addresses: 3,106. Number of servers: 830. Variety of server locations: 280. Country/Jurisdiction: UK. $ 2.99/ month for 3-year strategy. We have to provide these folks an extra shout-out just for the name of their service. The company has a strong network with an excellent selection of protocols supported. While they have a comprehensive (and really plainly written set of policy documents), the company clearly permits P2P and gushes. We like how HMA provides assistance on a wide variety of devices consisting of video game consoles. We gave them kudos for bitcoin support, and their outstanding money-back guarantee. They did make us frown a bit since they do log connection data. They also use five synchronised connections. While their monthly pricing of $11.52 is at the high end of the spectrum, their yearly rates is competitive at $78.66 for a full year. SEE ALL CONCEAL MY ASS PLANS. gf-logo-300x250-wht-720. VyprVPN Solutions. Variety of IP addresses: 200,000+. Variety of servers: 700+. Variety of server locations: 70+. Country/Jurisdiction: Switzerland. 30-Day Cash Back Guarantee. $ 2.99/ month for 3-year strategy. VyprVPN has the largest bank of IP addresses of any of the services we have actually taken a look at. The business provides a wide range of procedures, including its own high-performance Chameleon connection procedure. We like that the company provides a connection kill switch feature and, for those who require it, there's a choice to get a dedicated IP address. VyprVPN is a standout in their effort to offer privacy, and ward off censorship. When China began its program of deep package VPN assessment, Golden Frog's VyperVPN service added scrambled OpenVPN packets to keep the traffic streaming. At $9.95 for a month's service, and $80.04 for a year, the service is a good deal. SEE ALL VYPRVPN PREPARES. private-internet-access-ad-300x250. Personal Web Access. Variety of IP addresses: N/A. Variety of servers: 3,252. Number of server places: 37. Country/Jurisdiction: United States. Mentioning rate, if you desire a strong VPN service provider and you want the lowest yearly rate anywhere, Private Web Access is the location to go. At $6.95 a month, their regular monthly charge is the second least expensive of our choices, however at $39.95 per year, Private Internet Access beats even the second most affordable annual price by a complete Jackson (a $20 expense). The company does not launch details on the variety of IP addresses offered, but at 3,252, their server count is more than any of our other choices. These folks have been around given that 2010, and do not log anything. They supply a generous five connections, a connection kill switch feature, and some excellent online documentation and security assistance. Our one dissatisfaction is that their refund policy is 7-days rather of 30, however you can definitely get a feel for their exceptional efficiency in the area of a week. SEE ALL PERSONAL INTERNET ACCESS PREPARES. torguard-300x250. TorGuard. Variety of IP addresses: N/A. Number of servers: 1,600. Variety of server places: 50. Country/Jurisdiction: United States. Despite the fact that the business doesn't launch the number of IP addresses it supports, TorGuard didn't disappoint. In addition to standard VPN services, TorGuard uses a wide array of additional services, depending upon your personal privacy requires. Just like our other favorites, TorGuard keeps no logs whatsoever. They have a full suite of protocol support, so no matter how you want to connect, you can have your choice. We likewise like the active blog site the company keeps. It's relevant and intriguing to anybody with Web security concerns. While TorGuard only offers a 7-day return policy, it's enough time for you to be able to decide if you're pleased. The monthly rate of $9.99 is practically at the middle of the range, but the yearly fee of $59.99 is a deal compared to practically all our other competitors. SEE ALL TORGUARD PLANS. buffered-logo-300-250-1-1. Buffered VPN. Variety of IP addresses: 11,000. Number of servers: 800. Variety of server locations: 46. Country/Jurisdiction: Gibraltar. Buffered VPN doesn't disclose much about the size of its network, however the 30-day refund ensure suggests that you can take their service for a test drive and really get a feel for how well it carries out for you. The business distressed us due to the fact that they do keep some connection information. They cheered us up, though, due to their client support, limitless bandwidth, and generous number of simultaneous sessions permitted. The company is reasonably new, established in 2013. It's based in Europe, so those who choose an EU-based business might choose Buffered. We like how Buffered has made a strong dedication to Web liberty, and an equally strong dedication to supplying quality customer support. At $12.99 monthly and $99.00 for a year of service, they do not provide the least costly plan, but we do suggest providing a shot. SEE ALL BUFFERED VPN PLANS. goose. Goose VPN. Variety of IP addresses: 8. Variety of servers: 8. Number of server locations: 39. I needed to know why Goose VPN was so named. My very first order of business was to connect to the company's co-founder and ask. Geese, I was told, make exceptional guard animals. There are records of guard geese providing the alarm in ancient Rome when the Gauls assaulted. Geese have been utilized to secure an US Air Defense Command base in Germany and a brewery in Scotland. It's clear that the goose is an ideal mascot for a service that's suggested to guard your digital communications. And so, we have Goose VPN. Goose VPN has a number of standout features. Initially, you can have a limitless variety of synchronised connections (or gadgets) using the VPN at once. Second, if your bandwidth requirements are 50 GB or less per month, you can register for $2.99/ month, the most inexpensive monthly rate we have actually seen. If you desire unlimited bandwidth, the company definitely is pushing you towards purchasing a year at a time. Their regular monthly cost for unrestricted bandwidth is a middle-of-the-road $12.99/ month, but if you invest $59.88 for a year's service, you'll find it's the second least expensive by-the-year price of the services we have actually examined. Goose supplies all the typical clients, including iOS, Android, Mac, and Windows, and adds assistance for routers, Android TELEVISION, and Linux. They are dealing with a kill switch function, which may even be up and running by the time you read this evaluation. The company also provides 24/7 ticket-based support. Ducks quack, geese honk, and swans whoop (we know, because we looked it up). Overall, particularly provided the limitless connections and low yearly rate, we believe Goose VPN is something to beep about. SEE ALL GOOSEVPN PLANS. surfshark-logo. Surfshark. Variety of servers: 800+. Variety of server locations: 50. Country/Jurisdiction: British Virgin Islands. While Surfshark's network is smaller than some, they make it up on functions. Let's start off with the greatest win they provide: endless device assistance. If you want to run your whole home or office on Surfshark's VPN, you don't have to worry about the number of gadgets you have on or linked. They also use anti-malware, advertisement stopping and tracker blocking as part of their software application. The company has a solid variety of app support, running on Mac, Windows, iOS, Android, FireTV, and through routers. We particularly like the feature that permits you to whitelist certain apps and websites to instantly bypass the VPN. For some service usage, this can be seriously crucial. Surfshark also offers three special modes developed for those who wish to get around limitations and more thoroughly hide their online footsteps. Camouflage Mode masks your VPN activity so your ISP does not know you're utilizing a VPN. MultiHop dives your connection through multiple nations to hide your trail. Lastly, NoBorders Mode "allows [you] to successfully use Surfshark in restrictive areas." Just be careful. Doing any of these three things might be illegal in your nation and could lead to really extreme penalties. For a year plan, Surfshark can be found in very close to much of the other full-featured VPN suppliers, at $71.88 for the first year. Take care, because it looks like that will jump to $143.40 after your very first year is up. Month-by-month plans are $11.95. Their finest deal is $1.99 a month, for their 24 month strategy (you pay $47.76 up front). Absolutely benefit from their generous 30-day trial to choose if you like this service (and possibly set a reminder in 23 months to see if you can talk them into a continued discount rate). SEE ALL SURFSHARK PREPARES. WEBROOT LOGO. Webroot WiFi Security. Country/Jurisdiction: United States. Beginning rate: $39.99. As VPN services go, Webroot WiFi Security is relatively bare-bones-- but it's also low-cost. Starting at $39.99 for a year of VPN service, you can get a package with both VPN and Webroot's antivirus software for $69.98 for your very first year. Sadly, both of these costs bump up after the first year. VPN security leaps to $59.99 and the package jumps to $119.98. While we praise the combination of VPN and anti-viruses in one package, Webroot has had a troubled few years. In 2017, it wrongly flagged Windows' system files as malicious. In 2018, a kernel exploit was found in the business's Mac anti-virus client. In 2019, the company was acquired by backup company Carbonite. If you're only safeguarding a couple of gadgets and wish to conserve loan, Webroot's VPN might be for you. That $39.99 rate is for as much as three devices. If you wish to protect 5 devices, you'll require to pay $59.99 for a year and $79.99 after that. Honestly, as soon as you get in that price variety, there are products with more abilities readily available. Webroot's VPN is also light on protocols. While they do link utilizing IKEv2 by default, they likewise provide L2TP and the very old and very insecure PPTP protocol (although they do warn that it's not "as" protect. Another concern for those of you who need deep security is that the business does log both which VPN server location you link to and the nation you connect from. So who is Webroot's VPN for? If all you wish to do is protect your Wi-Fi connection while browsing in your local cafe or at a hotel, you only require to connect a couple of devices, and you wish to save money, this is a convenient alternative. However if you require a major VPN with deep capabilities, you'll want to look elsewhere in this directory. Likewise, we didn't discover any reference to a money back warranty, so check with their pre-sales and support prior to purchasing. SEE ALL WEBROOT WIFI SECURITY PLANS. VPN FAQ Since we're living in a connected world, security and privacy are critical to ensure our personal safety from nefarious hacks. From online banking to communicating with coworkers on a daily basis, we're now frequently transferring data on our computers and smartphones. It's extremely important to find ways of securing our digital life and for this reason, VPNs have become increasingly common. What Is a VPN? A virtual private network (VPN) is a technology that allows you to create a secure connection over a less-secure network between your computer and the internet. It protects your privacy by allowing you to anonymously appear to be anywhere you choose. A VPN is beneficial because it guarantees an appropriate level of security and privacy to the connected systems. This is extremely useful when the existing network infrastructure alone cannot support it. For example, when your computer is connected to a VPN, the computer acts as if it's also on the same network as the VPN. All of your online traffic is transferred over a secure connection to the VPN. The computer will then behave as if it's on that network, allowing you to securely gain access to local network resources. Regardless of your location, you'll be given permission to use the internet as if you were present at the VPN's location. This can be extremely beneficial for individuals using a public Wi-Fi. Therefore, when you browse the internet while on a VPN, your computer will contact the website through an encrypted VPN service connection. The VPN will then forward the request for you and forward the response from the website back through a secure connection. VPNs are really easy to use, and they're considered to be highly effective tools. They can be used to do a wide range of things. The most popular types of VPNs are remote-access VPNs and site-to-site VPNs. What is a remote-access VPN? A remote-access VPN uses public infrastructure like the internet to provide remote users secure access to their network. This is particularly important for organizations and their corporate networks. It's crucial when employees connect to a public hotspot and use the internet for sending work-related emails. A VPN client, on the user's computer or mobile device connects to a VPN gateway on the company's network. This gateway will typically require the device to authenticate its identity. It will then create a network link back to the device that allows it to reach internal network resources such as file servers, printers and intranets, as if it were on the same local network. It usually relies on either Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) or Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) to secure the connection. However, SSL VPNs can also be used to supply secure access to a single application, rather than an entire internal network. Some VPNs also provide Layer 2 access to the target network; these will require a tunneling protocol like PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) or L2TP (Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol) running across the base IPsec connection. What is a site-to-site VPN? This is when the VPN uses a gateway device to connect to the entire network in one location to a network in another location. The majority of site-to-site VPNs that connect over the internet use IPsec. Rather than using the public internet, it is also normal to use career multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) clouds as the main transport for site-to-site VPNs. VPNs are often defined between specific computers, and in most cases, they are servers in separate data centers. However, new hybrid-access situations have now transformed the VPN gateway in the cloud, typically with a secure link from the cloud service provider into the internal network. What is a mobile VPN? A traditional VPN can affect the user experience when applied to wireless devices. It's best to use a mobile VPN to avoid slower speeds and data loss. A mobile VPN offers you a high level of security for the challenges of wireless communication. It can provide mobile devices with secure access to network resources and software applications on their wireless networks. It's good to use when you're facing coverage gaps, inter-network roaming, bandwidth issues, or limited battery life, memory or processing power. Mobile VPNs are designed and optimized to ensure a seamless user experience when devices are switching networks or moving out of coverage. It generally has a smaller memory footprint, and because of that, it also requires less processing power than a traditional VPN. Therefore, it enables your applications to run faster while the battery pack is able to last longer. A Mobile VPN is a worthwhile tool to have since it increases privacy, user satisfaction and productivity, while also reducing unforeseen support issues caused by wireless connectivity problems. The increasing usage of mobile devices and wireless connectivity make it more important to ensure that your data is being transferred through a secure network. It will allow you to access the internet, while staying safe behind a firewall that protects your privileged information. Who needs a VPN? Individuals that access the internet from a computer, tablet or smartphone will benefit from using a VPN. A VPN service will always boost your security by encrypting and anonymizing all of your online activity. Therefore, both private and business users can benefit from using a VPN. Communications that happen between the VPN server and your device are encrypted, so a hacker or website spying on you wouldn't know which web pages you access. They also won't be able to see private information like passwords, usernames and bank or shopping details and so on. Anyone that wants to protect their privacy and security online should use a VPN. How to choose a VPN Service? There's a vast range of VPN servers on the internet. Some are free, but the best ones require a monthly subscription. Before you decide to download a VPN, make sure you consider these factors for understanding a VPN: Cost - VPNs aren't too pricey, but they vary from vendor to vendor. If your main concern is price, then go with something inexpensive, or free - like Spotflux Premium VPN or AnchorFree HotSpot Shield Elite. By all means, try a free server but they do have a few drawbacks since they attract a lot of users. Free servers are often slower, and since most are ad-supported, they place adverts on the online pages you access. Others can even limit the speed of your connection, as well as your online time or amount of data transferred. It's also important to note that leading VPN providers such as NordVPN and Privacy Internet Access offer stronger security features to ensure you're digitally safe. When selecting a paid VPN service, always be sure to check which countries it operates servers in. Reliability - Select a VPN that is reliable and read the reviews to make sure that it's capable of protecting you by providing you with sufficient online privacy. High security - An effective VPN will have the following security features: 128-bit encryption, anonymous DNS servers and an absence of connection logs. Are there any bandwidth limits? This can often be linked to price; paying more will generally provide more bandwidth with faster internet access. Are apps for Android, iOS phones and tablets available? Apps for Android and iOS devices are also vulnerable, so make sure your VPN server can support them. To ensure privacy, you want to make sure you have a VPN that doesn't store online logs. Some servers provide virus and spyware protection, and features like that can significantly increase your online safety. Using a no-logs VPN service will provide you with a higher degree of security. It can protect you from blanket government surveillance and prevent your internet service provider from knowing your online activity. Using a VPN for Netflix and other forbidden treasures Online streaming services like Netflix and Hulu have been making it difficult for foreign users to access their content in other countries. Many people can get around region restrictions by using a VPN service to route your traffic through another country. It can be quite simple to watch Netflix and other restricted goodies. You'll have to use a VPN service that allows you to get a unique IP address. This can often be available for an additional fee. Look for VPN services that offer a "dedicated IP address", "dedicated IP", or "static IP." Additional features like these will always allow you to access content from Netflix through a VPN service. This is by far the easiest way to access your forbidden apps since there's no specific way to block VPN traffic. A lot of people started using a VPN to evade geo-restrictions. But despite its forbidden benefits to users outside the US, a VPN is a great tool that can protect you and enhance your online experience over the internet by providing you with sufficient security and privacy. When it comes to selecting the best VPN, you have plenty of choices. There are many cost-effective VPN options, and all of them will vary in monthly offerings. Choosing the best VPN is easier once you narrow down the competition. The best indication of a good VPN service provider is that they have the right security and the right support in place for you.
The benefits of blockchain technology have not gone unnoticed, resulting in many blockchain implementations existing today. Most of these use and operate on computer networks that are easy to join and participate in. These permissionless implementations are often known as “public blockchain protocols” (such as Bitcoin and Ethereum). However, the use of an existing blockchain comes with many problems for existing businesses, mainly due to the lack of control over its features and development. While private/permissioned blockchains aim to fulfil the promise of becoming “fit-for-purpose”, they entail immense costs in terms of infrastructure and forfeit the ability to evolve at the speed of open source. The vast majority of both public and private implementations are in the early stages of their development (and currently use 3rd generation technologies). Projects typically focus on one type of blockchain versus the other. As such, most are only used for simple proof-of-concept (“PoC”) test-cases. Despite many such projects, the evolution of the blockchain stack is still stagnating, due to difficulties with enterprise IT integration and a lack of developer-friendly and easy-to-use software tools. Many implementations also lack the enterprise grade capabilities that are critical to run real business applications in both private and public deployments. The technology behind blockchain needs to mature and become more accessible for it to become a widely used and deployed architecture. Additional services and capabilities are also needed for it to be a commonly used business platform. What is public blockchain and private blockchain? Is blockchain meant to be privatized? PUBLIC BLOCKCHAIN A public blockchain is a blockchain network that is fully open and decentralized, where anyone can join and participate in the network if they follow the protocol of the public chain. The network typically has an incentivizing mechanism to encourage more participants to join the network. Bitcoin is one of the largest public blockchain networks in production today, and provides the potential for maximum participation and increased participation results in more computer “nodes” with the network. One of the drawbacks of existing public blockchains is the substantial amount of computational power that is necessary to maintain a distributed ledger at a large scale. More specifically, to achieve consensus, each node in a network must solve a complex, resource-intensive cryptographic problem (called proof-of-work (“PoW”)) to ensure all nodes are synchronised and trust is maintained. This process is complex, slow and consumes vast amounts of energy (electricity). Another disadvantage for particular users is the openness of many existing public blockchains, which provide little to no privacy for transactions (subject to pseudonymity). They also only support a weak notion of overall system level control as they are open to anyone to participate in the network. These are important considerations for future enterprise use of blockchain. However, despite the above, in a public blockchain, no one person, group or organisation controls the information which is on the blockchain; or the series of rules that underpin the protocol itself. No member can unilaterally change the protocols of the blockchain and the information contained within it. Users should be able to fully trust the public blockchain and therefore put their complete trust in a third party that uses the same blockchain. In short, public blockchains can provide maximum trust but are slow and expensive to run. They can also be extremely difficult to upgrade, because they require consensus amongst a large group of participants, many of whom may have different (and even competing) interests. Further, their trusted status may be undermined by various factors, such as malicious activity (such as so-called “front-running” by miners); by concerted behavior (e.g. when mining power is concentrated in a small number of participants); or even legal complexities that arise from having transactions recorded and validated in numerous jurisdictions all at once. PRIVATE BLOCKCHAIN Private blockchain is a blockchain network with united openness and decentralized compared with a public blockchain, where authorization under specific rules is required for a new node to join the network. A private blockchain network requires an invitation and must be validated by either the network starter or by a set of rules put in place by the network starter. Businesses that set up a private blockchain, will generally set up a permissioned network. This places restrictions on who is allowed to participate in the network, and in what transactions. Participants need to obtain an invitation or permission to join. The access control mechanism can vary: for example, existing participants could decide future entrants, a regulatory authority could issue licenses for participation or a consortium could make the decisions instead. Once an entity has joined the network, it will play a role in maintaining the blockchain in a decentralized manner. Private blockchains can (with careful system level IT design) permit greater scalability in terms of transactional throughput. In short, private blockchains provide improved privacy, maximum throughput and are potentially cheaper to run, however they lack the level of trust and network effects that are gained from the more widely deployed public blockchains. A lot of businesses are experimenting with building their own private blockchains. A number of these initiatives (and associated consortia) are facing difficulties to get these private blockchains into real life production systems. Some of the reasons for this are perhaps:
Building proprietary private blockchain systems requires specialist IT, cloud and developer skills and know-how that only very few firms possess.
Building these using an open source model - with the intention of using, enhancing and maintaining these longer term - is extremely challenging (and software development and maintenance is not typically a core-capability for these businesses).
The two above factors can significantly increase the long-term costs of such systems.
Therefore, for companies looking to integrate blockchain technology into their business processes, very careful consideration needs to be placed on the (i) trust plus interoperability (public) need versus (ii) performance plus privacy (private) requirement. This is a fundamental paradox when dealing with combined public and private blockchains. Due to stringent security and compliance requirements, large companies have traditionally implemented their IT systems in private computer architectures (such as private internal clouds). For the same reasons, many of these firms are experimenting with private blockchains, and choosing not to use any form of public protocol. A number of industry consortia (such as R3 and Hyperledger) - may be limiting their potential long-term value and usefulness - by perhaps only considering one type of blockchain architecture. In fact, much of the innovation in blockchain is actually happening in the public protocol space. This is evidenced by the sheer level of new ideas, projects and services that have been fueled by the many large scale (primarily crypto-currency driven) blockchain projects. The majority of these projects do focus on direct dApp development but this also drives certain innovations in the underlying (primarily public) blockchains that run them. We believe that truly transformative business benefits can be achieved if a hybrid approach to blockchain is used. This approach would help maximize the benefits (and reduce the drawbacks) of a combined public and private blockchain architecture. We see the benefit in having a business architecture that - uses a public blockchain to provide enterprise integrity, immutability and a trustless network environment, for data and value (asset) transactions - coupled with a private blockchain that helps enable regulatory compliant record-keeping, privacy and that is configured and optimized for the required enterprise level performance. The key distinguishing features of the two forms of blockchain (i.e. public and private protocols) include the level of trust and control in each system. Trust and control often vary depending on the nature of the blockchain architecture and the software consensus algorithms being used. Often increases in control can result in a decrease in decentralized trust, and vice versa. Performance throughput is also becoming a serious issue for blockchain as deployments grow. Public blockchains, like Bitcoin as mentioned, provide the potential for maximum participation and increased participation results in more computer “nodes” within the network. A larger network of nodes running a blockchain consensus algorithm increases decentralized trust. However, control can become a serious issue in this instance, if an entity gains a majority position over these computer resources. Large blockchain networks running current generation protocols and Proof-of-Work consensus algorithms are very inefficient. They draw a huge amount of energy to run the nodes and validate new transactions. The distribution of transactions is also very slow (especially for business-critical actions). In private blockchains (such as Hyperledger Fabric) there is much more stringent control of which parties (nodes) are part of the specific blockchain network. Throughput can be increased by using state-of-the-art computers, memory and solid-state disks; coupled with well-designed network interfaces between the nodes. However, this often results in lesser decentralized trust as the networks tend to be much smaller in size than in public protocols. Newer and more innovative consensus algorithms are required. (The figure depicts the two models). Permissionless (Public) vs. Permissioned (Private) Blockchains The decision on whether a business chooses a public or private blockchain will depend on a few key considerations. Such as a careful balancing act between (I) the need to maximize trust in the transactions (II) control over the system and finally (III) overall performance throughput AERGO PLATFORM (Bridging the gap between public blockchain and private blockchain) AERGO seeks to leverage and extend both public and private blockchains, supported by modern cloud architectures. Just like the development, evolution and adoption of “hybrid cloud” over the past 10 years, AERGO intends to facilitate the creation of hybrid blockchain based products and business models. AERGO proposes to use state-of-the-art technology that is implemented and manifested as a simple to use practical blockchain protocol. This protocol is intended to be designed so that it can be used in any combination of (i) a public, (ii) a private or (iii) a combined public plus private blockchain architecture configuration. This is depicted in Figure below. AERGO aims to become the de facto enterprise blockchain. One that bridges the gap between both public and private networks. A platform that uses core blockchain technology and deployment blueprints that have already been proven in real-life in-production systems across the world by Blocko (a leading blockchain technology and enterprise IT integration-services company with operations in the UK, South Korea and Hong Kong. COINSTACK-based blockchain systems have already been deployed to 25 million users in over 20 in-production systems). AERGO bridges the Public and Private blockchain worlds for Enterprise IT AERGO intends to combine the practicality and innovation of public blockchains, with the performance and security provided by private blockchains. Just as with cloud computing, we hope to develop the technology to enable companies to develop and run their (dApp) applications on a secure public infrastructure. When needed, these companies will be able to easily and seamlessly migrate some (or even all) of these applications to a more high-performance private blockchain. All of this and without losing any of the benefits of their previous public blockchain model implementation. To enable such a comprehensive hybrid blockchain architecture, innovative technologies and a novel data bridging framework (proxy) are required to make these different types of system work together. The bridging proxy would allow bi-directional communication between multiple public and private blockchain networks. The ability to develop, compile and embed smart contracts into such a diverse architecture will also be required. This also needs to be supported by a very high-performance and efficient virtual machine engine for future and more comprehensive smart contract development. This principle is depicted in the illustrative diagram below. AERGO ecosystem network illustrating public and each private chain bridged CONCLUSION AERGO aims to advance enterprise blockchain, by opening up a new era of mass market usage of blockchain. An era where businesses can benefit from both public and private blockchain innovation, while focusing on building, deploying and managing new services. In short, the AERGO Project aims to provide:
Advanced, yet friendly and easy to use technology for developers and contractors.
A secure and fast public and private blockchain cloud architecture for businesses.
An open ecosystem for third parties and businesses to connect and engage with.
Mega FAQ (Or: Please come here for your questions first)
Qbundle Guide (Step by step setup & Bootstrap) https://burstwiki.org/wiki/QBundle 1( I want to mine or activate My account. Where do find the multiple coins? You only need 1, an outgoing transaction or reward reassignment will set the public key. Get them from: https://www.reddit.com/burstcoinmining/comments/7q8zve/initial_burstcoin_requests/ Or (Faucet list) https://faucet.burstpay.net/ (if this is empty, come back later) http://faucet.burst-coin.es Or https://forums.getburst.net/c/new-members-introductions/getting-started-initial-burstcoin-requests 2( I bought coins on Bittrex and want to move to my new wallet, but can't. Why? Bittrex will only send to accounts with a public key (not a Burst requirement) so see number 1 and either set the name on the account (IF you will not mine) or set the reward recipient to the pool. Either action will enable the account and allow for transfers from Bittrex. 3( I sent coins from Poloniex/anywhere to Bittrex and they don’t show up after a considerable time. Why? You need to set an unencrypted message on the transaction, informing Bittrex which account to send the funds to (this is in the directions on Bittrex). Did you do this? Contact Bittrex support with all the details and eventually you will get your funds. 4( How much can I make on Burst? https://explore.burst.cryptoguru.org/tool/calculate Gives you an average over time assuming a few things like: Average luck/100% uptime/no overlapping/fees on pool/good plot scan time (<20 seconds) if you do not have all of these, you may not see that number. 5( If I use SSD’s would I make more money? No, it’s 95% capacity and 5% scan time that determine success. More plot area = better deadlines = better chance of forging a block, or better rates from a pool. 6( What is ‘solo’ and ‘pool’ (wasn’t his name Chewbacca?) Solo is where you attempt to ‘forge’ (mine) a block by yourself; you get 100% of the block reward and fees. But you only receive funds if you forge, no burst for coming in second place. Pools allow a group of miners to ‘pool’ together their resources and when a miner wins, they give the pool the winnings (this is done by the reward assignment you completed earlier), it is then divided according to different percentages and methods and burst is sent out according to pool rules (minimum pay-out, time, etc.) 7( I have been mining for 2 days and my wallet doesn’t show any Burst WHY? Mining solo: it is win-or-lose, nothing in between, and wining is luck and plot size. Pool mining: because it costs 1 burst to send burst, the pools have either a time requirement (every X days) or a minimum amount (100 burst +) so you need to research your pool. Some pools allow for you to set the limit (cryptoGuru and similar) to be met before sending 8( How do I see what I have pending? On CryptoGuru, based pools, it’s the ‘Pending (burst)’ column, other pools, look for the numbers next to your burst ID. One is Paid and the other pending. 9( I’m part of a pool and I forged a block, but I didn’t recieve the total value of the block, why? A pool has 2 basic numbers that denote the pay-out method, in the format ‘XX-XX’ (i.e. 50-50) The first number is the % paid to the block forger (miner) and the second is the retained value, which is paid to historic ‘shares’ (or, past blocks that the pool didn’t win, but had a miner that was ‘close’ to winning with a good submitted deadline) Examples of pools: 0-100 (good for <40TB) 20-80 (30-80TB) 50-50 (60-200TB) 80-20 (150-250) 100-0 (solo mine, 150+ TB) Please note that there is an overlap as this is personal preference and just guidance; a higher historical share value means a smoother pay-out regime, which some people prefer. If fees are not factored in, or are the same on different pools, the pay-out value will be the same over a long enough period. 10( Is XXX model of hard drive good? Which one do you recommend? CHEAP is best. If you have 2 new hard drives, both covered by warranty, get the one with the lowest cost per TB (expressed as $/TB , calculated by dividing the cost by the number of terabytes) because plot size is KING, 11( How many drives can I have on my machine? For best performance, you can have up to 2 drives per thread (3 on a new fast AVX2 CPU). So that quad-core core-2-quad can have up to 8 drives, but a more modern i7 with 4 cores + hyper threading can squeeze 8 * 3 or 24 drives. (Performance while scanning will suffer) 12( Can I game while I mine? Some people have done so, but you cannot have the ‘maximum’ number of drives and play games generally. 13( Can I mine Burst and GPU mine other coins? Yes, if you CPU Mine Burst. 14( I’m GPU plotting Burst and GPU mining another coin, my plots are being corrupted, why? My advice is dedicating a GPU to either mining or plotting, don’t try to do both. 15( What is a ‘plot’? A plot is a file that contains Hashes, these hashes are used to mine burst. A plot is tied to an account, but they can be created (with the same account ID) on other machines and connected back to your miner(s). 16( Where can I trade/buy/sell Burst? A list of exchanges is maintained on https://www.reddit.com/burstcoin/ (on the right, ‘Exchanges’ tab) the biggest at the moment are Bittrex and Poloniex, some offer direct Fiat-to-Burst purchase (https://indacoin.com for example) 17( Do I have to store my Burst off the exchange? No, but it’s safer from hackers who target exchanges, if you cannot guarantee the safety or security of your home computer from Trojans etc, then it might be best to leave on an exchange (but enable 2FA security on your account PLEASE!) 18( What security measures can I take to keep my coin safe? When you create an account, sign out and back in to your wallet (to make sure you have copied the pass phrase correctly) and keep multiple copies of the key (at least one physically printed or written down and in a safe place, better in 2 places) do not disclose the passphrase to anyone. Finally use either a local wallet or a trusted web wallet (please research before using any web wallet) 19( How can I help Burst? Run a wallet, which will act as a node (or if you’re a programmer, contact the Dev team Bring attention to burst (without ‘shilling’ or trying to get people to buy) And help translate into your local language Be a productive member of the community and contribute experience and knowledge if you can, or help others get into Burst. 20( Will I get coins on the fork(s) and where will they be? There will be no new coin, and no new coins to be given/air dropped etc, the forks are upgrades to burst and there will not be a ‘classic’ or ‘new’ burst. 21( Will I need to move my Burst off of the exchange for the fork? No, your transactions are on the block chain, which will be used on the fork, they will be visible after the move; nothing will need to be done on your side. 22( Where can I read about the progress of Burst and news in general on the community? There is no finer place than https://www.burstcoin.ist/ 23( What are the communities for Burst and the central website? Main website: https://www.burst-coin.org/ Reddit: https://www.reddit.com/burstcoin and https://www.reddit.com/burstcoinmining/ Burstforum.net: https://www.burstforum.net/ Getburst forum: https://forums.getburst.net/ Official Facebook channel: https://m.facebook.com/groups/398967360565392 (these are the forums that are known to be supporting the current Dev Team) Other ways to talk to the community: Discord: https://discordapp.com/invite/RPhpjVv Telegram (General): https://t.me/burstcoin Telegram (Mining): https://t.me/BurstCoinMining 24( When will Burst partner up with a company? Burst is a currency, the USD does not ‘partner up’ with a company, the DEV team will not partner up and give over to special interests. 25( Why is the DEV team anonymous? They prefer anonymity, as it allows them to work without constant scrutiny and questions unless they wish to engage, plus the aim is for Burst to become a major contender, and this brings issues with security. They will work and produce results, they owe you nothing and if you cannot see the vision they provide then please do not ‘invest’ for short term gain. 26( When moon/Lambo/$100/make me rich? My crystal ball is still broken, come back to the FAQ later for answer (seriously, this is a coin to hold, if you want to day-trade, good luck to you) 27( How can I better educate myself and learn about Dymaxion? Read about the Dymaxion here: https://www.reddit.com/burstcoin/wiki/dymaxion 28( My reads are slow, why? There are many reasons for this, if your computer has a decent spec it’s likely due to USB3 hub issues, or plugging into a USB2 hub, but other reasons can be multiple plots in the same folder, but it’s best to visit the mining subreddit. They can help more than an simple FAQ https://www.reddit.com/burstcoinmining/ 29( I have a great idea for Burst (not proof of stake related)? Awesome! Please discuss with the DEV team on discord https://discordapp.com/invite/RPhpjVv (Please be aware that this is a public forum, you need to find who to ask/tell) 30( I have a great idea for Burst (Proof of stake related)? No. if you want a POS, find a POS coin. On the tangle which is being implemented a POS/POW/POC coin can be created, but BURST will always be POC mined. You are welcome to implement a proof of stake coin on this! 31( Will the Dev team burn any coins? Burst is not an ICO, so any coins will need to be bought to be burnt. You are welcome to donate, but the DEV team have no intention of burning any coins, or increasing the coin cap. 32( When will there be an IOS wallet? IOS wallet is completed; we are waiting for it to go on the app store. Apple is the delaying factor. 33( Why do overlapping plots matter? Plots are like collections of lottery tickets (and if only one ticket could win). Having 2 copies is not useful, and it means that you have less coverage of ‘all’ the possible numbers. It’s not good, avoid. 34( My local wallet used to run, I synchronised it before and now it says ‘stopped’. when I start it, it stops after a few seconds, what should I do? I suggest that you change the database type to portable MariaDB (on Qbundle, at the top, ‘Database’ select, ‘change database’) and then re-import the database from scratch (see 35) 35( Synchronising the block chain is slow and I have the patience of a goldfish. What can I do? On Qbundle , ‘Database’ select ‘Bootstrap chain’ and make sure the CryptoGuru repository is selected, then ‘start Import’ this will download and quickly stuff the local database (I suggest Portable MariaDB, see 34) (lol, loop) 36( What will the block reward be next month/will the block rewards run out in 6 months? https://www.ecomine.earth/burstblockreward/ Rewards will carry on into 2026, but transaction fees will be a bigger % by then, and so profitable mining will continue. 37( How can I get started with Burst (wallet/mining/everything) and I need it in a video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LJLhw37Lh_8 Watch and be enlightened. 38( Can I mine on multiple machines with the same account? Yes, if you want to pool mine this can be done (but be prepared for small issues like reported size being incorrect. Just be sure to keep question 33 in mind.) 39( Why do some of my drives take forever to plot? Most likely they are SMR drives, it’s best to plot onto another SSD and then move the finished plot/part of a plot across to the SMR drive as this is much quicker. SMR drives are fine on the read, just random writes that are terrible. So plot an SMR drive quickly, plot to a non SMR or better still SSD drive, in as big a chunk as possible (fewer files better) and move. a version of Xplotter, called Splotter, can do this easily. https://github.com/NoParamedic/SPlotter 40( I have a great idea; why not get listed on more exchanges!! Exchanges list coins because of 2 reasons:
The coin pays (often A LOT, seriously we’ve been asked for 50 BTC)
I suggest you speak with your exchange and ask ‘when will they offer Burst?’ 41( Do you have a roadmap? https://www.burst-coin.org/roadmap 42( Why is the price of Burst going up/down/sideways/looping through time? The price of burst is still quite dependent upon Bitcoin, meaning that if Bitcoin gains, the value of Burst gains, if Bitcoin drops then Burst also drops. If there is news for Burst then we will see something independent of Bitcoin moving. Variations can be because of people buying in bulk or selling in bulk. There are also ‘pump and dump’ schemes that we detest, that can cause spikes in price that have nothing to do with news or Bitcoin, just sad people taking advantage of others. 43( Where is the best place to go with my mining questions? https://www.reddit.com/burstcoinmining/ or https://t.me/BurstCoinMining 44( What hardware do you advise me to buy, is this computer good? See question 43 for specific questions on hardware, it depends on so many variables. The ‘best’ in my opinion is a 36 bay Supermicro storage server, usually they have dual 6-core CPU’s and space for 36 drives. No USB cables, plotting and mining monster, anything else, DYOR. 45( Where do you buy your hard drives? I have bought most from EBay in job lots, and some refurbished drives with short warranties. Everything else I have bought, from Amazon. 46( Can I mine on my Google drive/cloud based storage? In short: no. If you want to try, and get to maybe 1 TB and then find that your local connection isn’t fast enough, or that shortly after, your account is blocked for various reasons. Please be my guest. 47( Can I mine on my NAS? Some you can mine with the NAS (if it can run the miner, it can scan locally) but generally they’re not very fast. good for maybe 16 TB? Having a plot on a NAS and mining from another computer depends on the network speed between the NAS and scanning computer. I believe you can scan about 8 TB (maybe a bit more) and keep the scan times to within acceptable, but YMMV. 48( How can I set up a node? No need to set up a node, just set up a wallet (version 2.0.4) or Qbundle (2.2) and it will do the rest 49( Are the passphrases secured? I’ll leave the effort to a few people to show how secure a 12-word passphrase is: https://burstforum.net/topic/4766/the-canary-burst-early-warning-system Key point: brute forcing it will be around 13,537,856,339,904,134,474,012,675,034 years. 50( I logged into my account (maybe with a different burst ID) and see no balance!! I have dealt with this very issue multiple times, and there are only 3 options:
You have typed in the password incorrectly
You have copy-pasted the password incorrectly
You are trying to log into a ‘local wallet’ which the block chain has not finished updating
Link to @Daniel_Plante Thread I'm going to retweet a twitter convo I had on 2019-03-17, reformatted to make it clearer. It's about mining, and #Bitcoin's survivability. The thread included @petertoddbtc, @VinnyLingham, @BitcoinORama, @misterdna and @desantis IIRC. FYI: () means comment by me after the fact, and  means a later edit to make things a little more clear. Here it is, comments welcome: Thanks Mr Mendez (@misterdna), yes I already read it. Too much talking, not enough listening. This question might interest you Alex (@BitcoinORama): if a hash+memory based cryptocoin proof took [off], would you expect Corsair (Micron?) would include one tiny hash core per DRAM die? The DRAM industry is at the top of its product adoption S-curve. Razor thin margins, supply contracts years into the future, and R&D cycles give 2% improvement/year. It's not possible to dominate that industry [the way Bitcoin ASIC designers did] with less than $50B and 10 years. DRAM is what's known as a "commodity [mature] product" - not "commodity" as in corn or oil. [But] like toasters or flashlights. The economic inertia is immense. Basically, the only ASIC attack you could do on the DRAM industry is to make your ASIC into a better DRAM. Which of course is a silly notion. If you want a 2nd opinion, @BitcoinORama might help. Alex, GPUs simply accelerate an algorithm. You already gamed that. Can't game memory. An algo might be gamed. You can't game a solid proof of control of a physical resource. "Memory intensive algos" are a hope and a prayer. Do you want a hybrid Pow+DRAM example? (@desantis): yes. Ok... you have a PC. You mine as usual, pick your tx's & assemble your block. Set your nonce, but also set a DRAM size commitment (2, 4, 8 Gb etc). Hash that block, put that hash in memory. Then hash that result and put that in the next mem location, etc. If you use up the DRAM commitment, advance the nonce & start over. If you find the solution, keep hashing/storing to the end of your DRAM commitment, & publish. A lot more detail, but that's basically it. Prove you have a physical [common] resource. (@desantis) what if I have multiple TB of RAM? Sure, buy multiple TB of RAM, that's fine. But it can only be served by one hash source. (Most don't grok that critical point.) (@desantis) the ability to acquire large quantities of RAM becomes the new ASIC, no? The new ASIC... to a certain extent, but it's bound to a single hash node, and the current global installed base of DRAM, in conjunction with manufacturer contracts precludes that in any practical sense. (@desantis) where can I read more? No place in particular. Mentioned it a few times over the years. In detail only now. (@pa49): I guess the point is that there's no monopoly on DRAM. (@desantis) there will be once the manufacturers realize their hw prints money, no? Not really about monopoly, but just a mature industry that a BTC ASIC startup would not have a hope in hell of prying open. (@BitcoinORama) you can allocate memory to the same package as the chip if justified re: scrypt asics Right Alex, and here's an interesting question: if PoW+DRAM takes [off], will Micron add a tiny hashing core to its DRAM dies? (@desantis) I think they would. I think you're right. Under those circumstances, that's what I would advise them to do. (@BitcoinORama) ahh now i think I get where you are going with this. Thanks for your help Alex. Our talk the other night gelled my thoughts. yeah I started reading that http://Bitcointalk.org thread today. [It Prodded] me. But 2 more things: miner has to complete the DRAM commitment but then use the very last hash as input to an algorithm that points back to multiple random results in the DRAM range & publish it. Keeps him honest. 2nd, if he commits to 26G but finds the answer in the 1st 10M, he might want to quickly start over with a 1G commit if he lies about how much memory per hasher. So, counterintuitively, you make the difficulty setting for 2G twice as high as 4G. (And that was the convo from March 19th 2017. But, something I forgot to add: DRAM hybrid mining difficulty. For a PoW+DRAM hybrid, you don't actually have to synchronise them. They work independently. You just design your consensus algorithm to accept the "first past the post" from either of them. Bitcoin's timing is currently designed around 10 minute blocks, & just hashing. This hybrid design will require a 3-variable DRAM difficulty approach to seamlessly integrate into the hashing paradigm economics. It is wise to accomodate the ASIC designer and miner, so give them 2 years to turn their profits and get out. So you want to make the DRAM part of it very difficcult at first. Here's the 3 layers: Layer 1 is the introductory layer: a reverse S-curve, because you want the DRAM success to start slow, then accelerate, then go asymptotic to its final value which will then eclipse pure PoW. It should be 100 times harder to get a block reward using DRAM at first. Layer 2 is the core value: long term DRAM difficulty calculation - it is recalculated the same as the current Bitcoin one, every 2 weeks or so. Layer 3 is dependent on your memory size commitment before you start to hash and store results. Reconciling these 3 variables gives you your difficulty level before you start a hash/store run. Again, all you have to do to restore mining to the masses is tie it to a real world physical resource everybody has, and/or can easily get. I've said many times that the "proof" needs more than "decentralized" - it absolutely requires "massively diffuse" or it won't work: ie,"a miner in every home". And that's the software side of things. The hardware side (internet physical infrastructure that you don't control) is yet another sticky point. I have a couple of ideas about that, but I sense that very few will embrace the unavoidable tradeoffs. Thanks for your time.) Update: I found a critical flaw A miner with ASICs could just hash at full speed "off line" without storing results, find the solution, then pass the data + nonce to a PC with DRAM to reproduce that winning pass but store the results. Solution: Instead of using the very last hash to compute a memory location to publish, you instead do it periodically during the hashing run, eg every 1024 hashes or 65536 or whatever. Use the value at that location to XOR with your last hash. Repeat through your run.
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catchphrase copypasta humanz -
Doge Street is giving away 150,000 Doges to raise awareness of P2Pools and raise the global P2Pool speed
For those new to us, P2Pools allow mining to be decentralised. Pool operators can set up nodes that connect to each other and share hash speed. There are many benefits for miners
No funds are kept on the pool server, payouts are automatic whenever the P2Pool network finds a block (no chance of coins being stolen)
No need for registration, you only need your payout address
P2Pool nodes keep shares synchronised, so if a node does go down you will not lose any shares.
if you want a more in depth explanation, you can find one here. However - I'll be brutally honest here. Because of the way P2Pool works, miners that have speeds that are lower than 100kh/s will have trouble getting payouts (in semi-rare cases up to 24 hours with no payout). I'm running the node at Doge Street and I will give out 25k in Dogecoins every 3 hours to all P2Pool patrons (you can mine on any node, don't have to use mine) until 150k have been given out. The 25k giveaways will be distributed to those on the P2Pool payout list according to the share standings). I know a lot of Shibes here run P2Pool nodes as well. So if you all want to plug your nodes in the comments or if you'd like do a give away, you are more than welcome. Raising the global P2Pool speed benefits all P2Pool miners, since we'll be able to get more blocks faster and earn a bit more from the transaction fees. The global pool speed is currently ~200mh/s, help us take it into the gh/s range! edit: Give away is still continuing, 1st payout in 20 minutes. Since not much people have seen the post, we'll send out 25k every 3 hours so more people can get in. edit: 1st 25k sent, the rest will come every 3 hours. I set a script do to it automatically. edit: 2nd 25k sent edit 3rd 25k sent edit 4th 25k sent edit 5th 25k sent edit 6th 25k sent Upvote us and help p2pools grow! If you are coming in just now, it's not too late to get into the give away. I still have some funds left to encourage miners to switch to p2pool. If you didn't anything from the 25k chunks, message me and I'll send some more over.
Upgrading and downgrading How to Upgrade If you are running an older version, shut it down. Wait until it has completely shut down (which might take a few minutes for older versions), then run the installer (on Windows) or just copy over /Applications/Bitcoin-Qt (on Mac) or bitcoind/bitcoin-qt (on Linux). Downgrade warning Because release 0.10.0 and later makes use of headers-first synchronization and parallel block download (see further), the block files and databases are not backwards-compatible with pre-0.10 versions of Bitcoin Core or other software:
Blocks will be stored on disk out of order (in the order they are
received, really), which makes it incompatible with some tools or other programs. Reindexing using earlier versions will also not work anymore as a result of this.
The block index database will now hold headers for which no block is
stored on disk, which earlier versions won't support. If you want to be able to downgrade smoothly, make a backup of your entire data directory. Without this your node will need start syncing (or importing from bootstrap.dat) anew afterwards. It is possible that the data from a completely synchronised 0.10 node may be usable in older versions as-is, but this is not supported and may break as soon as the older version attempts to reindex. This does not affect wallet forward or backward compatibility. There are no known problems when downgrading from 0.11.x to 0.10.x. Important information Transaction flooding At the time of this release, the P2P network is being flooded with low-fee transactions. This causes a ballooning of the mempool size. If this growth of the mempool causes problematic memory use on your node, it is possible to change a few configuration options to work around this. The growth of the mempool can be monitored with the RPC command getmempoolinfo. One is to increase the minimum transaction relay fee minrelaytxfee, which defaults to 0.00001. This will cause transactions with fewer BTC/kB fee to be rejected, and thus fewer transactions entering the mempool. The other is to restrict the relaying of free transactions with limitfreerelay. This option sets the number of kB/minute at which free transactions (with enough priority) will be accepted. It defaults to 15. Reducing this number reduces the speed at which the mempool can grow due to free transactions. For example, add the following to bitcoin.conf:
More robust solutions are being worked on for a follow-up release. Notable changes Block file pruning This release supports running a fully validating node without maintaining a copy of the raw block and undo data on disk. To recap, there are four types of data related to the blockchain in the bitcoin system: the raw blocks as received over the network (blk???.dat), the undo data (rev???.dat), the block index and the UTXO set (both LevelDB databases). The databases are built from the raw data. Block pruning allows Bitcoin Core to delete the raw block and undo data once it's been validated and used to build the databases. At that point, the raw data is used only to relay blocks to other nodes, to handle reorganizations, to look up old transactions (if -txindex is enabled or via the RPC/REST interfaces), or for rescanning the wallet. The block index continues to hold the metadata about all blocks in the blockchain. The user specifies how much space to allot for block & undo files. The minimum allowed is 550MB. Note that this is in addition to whatever is required for the block index and UTXO databases. The minimum was chosen so that Bitcoin Core will be able to maintain at least 288 blocks on disk (two days worth of blocks at 10 minutes per block). In rare instances it is possible that the amount of space used will exceed the pruning target in order to keep the required last 288 blocks on disk. Block pruning works during initial sync in the same way as during steady state, by deleting block files "as you go" whenever disk space is allocated. Thus, if the user specifies 550MB, once that level is reached the program will begin deleting the oldest block and undo files, while continuing to download the blockchain. For now, block pruning disables block relay. In the future, nodes with block pruning will at a minimum relay "new" blocks, meaning blocks that extend their active chain. Block pruning is currently incompatible with running a wallet due to the fact that block data is used for rescanning the wallet and importing keys or addresses (which require a rescan.) However, running the wallet with block pruning will be supported in the near future, subject to those limitations. Block pruning is also incompatible with -txindex and will automatically disable it. Once you have pruned blocks, going back to unpruned state requires re-downloading the entire blockchain. To do this, re-start the node with
-reindex. Note also that any problem that would cause a user to reindex (e.g.,
disk corruption) will cause a pruned node to redownload the entire blockchain. Finally, note that when a pruned node reindexes, it will delete any blk???.dat and rev???.dat files in the data directory prior to restarting the download. To enable block pruning on the command line:
- -prune=N: where N is the number of MB to allot for raw block & undo data.
Modified RPC calls:
getblockchaininfo now includes whether we are in pruned mode or not.
getblock will check if the block's data has been pruned and if so, return an
- getrawtransaction will no longer be able to locate a transaction that has a
UTXO but where its block file has been pruned. Pruning is disabled by default. Big endian support Experimental support for big-endian CPU architectures was added in this release. All little-endian specific code was replaced with endian-neutral constructs. This has been tested on at least MIPS and PPC hosts. The build system will automatically detect the endianness of the target. Memory usage optimization There have been many changes in this release to reduce the default memory usage of a node, among which:
Accurate UTXO cache size accounting (#6102); this makes the option -dbcache
precise where this grossly underestimated memory usage before
Reduce size of per-peer data structure (#6064 and others); this increases the
number of connections that can be supported with the same amount of memory
Reduce the number of threads (#5964, #5679); lowers the amount of (esp.
virtual) memory needed
Fee estimation changes This release improves the algorithm used for fee estimation. Previously, -1 was returned when there was insufficient data to give an estimate. Now, -1 will also be returned when there is no fee or priority high enough for the desired confirmation target. In those cases, it can help to ask for an estimate for a higher target number of blocks. It is not uncommon for there to be no fee or priority high enough to be reliably (85%) included in the next block and for this reason, the default for -txconfirmtarget=n has changed from 1 to 2. Privacy: Disable wallet transaction broadcast This release adds an option -walletbroadcast=0 to prevent automatic transaction broadcast and rebroadcast (#5951). This option allows separating transaction submission from the node functionality. Making use of this, third-party scripts can be written to take care of transaction (re)broadcast:
Send the transaction as normal, either through RPC or the GUI
Retrieve the transaction data through RPC using gettransaction (NOT
getrawtransaction). The hex field of the result will contain the raw hexadecimal representation of the transaction
The transaction can then be broadcasted through arbitrary mechanisms
I know there have been a lot of posts on secure bitcoin wallets. I was wondering if someone could look at my plan to see if it's robust, and if it's not, point me to the satoshi-standard wallet tutorial. My general plan is to: 1) Create a "inuse" wallet using blockchain wallet, with double-passwords, two factor auth etc. 2) Create an offline ubuntu image with an encrypted home directory. 3) Securely transfer a bitcoin address generating webpage via usb to the offline image. 4) Load up the page and generate a bitcoin address, backing up the relevant details to multiple offline fireproof safes (might even be a good use for a bank!). 5) Send a test transaction to the offline wallet using blockchain. 6) Load up a verified ubuntu live cd, download the latest bitcoin client and synchronise. Verify the offline wallet transaction has completed and I can access the account. Shut down the computer. 7) Create a watch only wallet using blockchain wallet. 8) Once funds get over X transfer the blockchain funds to the offline wallet. 9) Once funds in offline wallet get to Y, then create a new offline wallet using steps (3,4,5,6,7) and use this until funds in new wallet get to Y, then repeat. The reason I am planning on having multiple offline wallets is that I do not like single points of failure. Are there any steps I am missing? I believe that this process will be a good balance of risk and ease-of-use. Does anyone know of a way to speed up the verification of step (6) above?
What I can tell is that there is an intense social life at CERN which I would call inbred: the community at CERN is somewhat special ... Long hours spent at the lab, sometime a geeky attitude, does not favor contacts outside CERN ... end result: I know a lot of people who have found their companion within the community. (TC)
CERN is an academic environment and we take lots of efforts to publish results, technical designs, etc. We do not do any military research. Therefore, there is few stuff being "classified". Sometimes, there is a period when we keep information internal until we are sure the results are correct. Thus, basically, you find only the "usual" classified stuff at CERN: payslips, medical records of our employees, passwords, financial information.
When we close the LHC after access, the access console beeps. when we send out timing events to synchronise the equipment, we have an announcer that speaks out a line, that recalls what happened.
For the rest, the control room is far from the equipment, so we don't really hear it... but colleagues told me that at the ISR (another accelerator at CERN), they could hear the beam being dumped with a low pitch boom :) (gp)
We are doing a lot of research which does not get onto the blogs/newspapers: we have published more than 100 scientific papers on major peer reviewed journals.
Such papers are all about measuring the way Nature works at fundamental level. Today this kind of fundamental research can only be carried out in laboratories like CERN and it is our role to exploit such tools to provide mankind with these measurement which could be the basis of the future 'revolution' in understanding the inner workings of Nature. (TC)
Common misconceptions are the widely advertised black-hole maker thing, but also the fear of us developing new dangerous 'stuff' (the fact that CERN is doing sub- nuclear research adds to the confusion). Another common misconception on the positive side is to think that we might develop the solution to the energy problems of the world. (TC)
Diversity of cultures and being able to work with some of the most brilliant minds has been ( and still is after having been at CERN for 28 years) one of the things I consider a unique feature of CERN. (tc)
Sure! Join CERN as a summer student (too late for this year, I fear) but what about 2015? You'll get hands-on at CERN: weeks of lectures in the morning by professionals, hands-on projects within different CERN groups on your favorite subject, and lots of networking and socializing in the evenings. Meet your peers from all over the world. Sign up here.
I love LEGO. When Google came around and was taking footings of the CERN Computer Centre for their Google Streetview, I had a chance to drop a few LEGO minifigs beforehand. Later we made a treasure hunt of it... Was quite fun. If you want to try yourself, go here. If you want to cheat, solutions are here.
It is a good question: the way we work is by theorist assembling the information that we , experimentalists, make into models. Such models besides explaining what we have already observed make also predictions which we try to verify ( the HIggs boson is a notable example). In terms of 'how often' this is the most common situation we are dealing in our daily research life.
There are many other questions ( like why there is an obvious asymmetry between matter and antimatter) where the model builders and the experimentalist are trying to bootstrap each other with continous progress in understanding.
And there have been times where experimentalists have surprised the theorists by discovering new particles which nobody had foreseen ( example the tau lepton) (TC)
As theorists, we are free to work on the projects we wish, depending on what we think more interesting or needed. Experimentalists however have also predecided projects to work on depending on the program and preiorities of the collaborations. We also have sometimes common projects between theorists and experimentalists. (nm)
Computer science is everywhere at CERN! The massive amounts of data collected by the physics experiment must be filtered, transferred and stored. "Big Data Analytics" is a good start here. High bandwidth networking another. Mass storage (>100PB/year) a third.
Within the CERN openlab we work with third parties on such research --- so if you want to fiddel with hardware come here.
If you love software design, there are lots of opportunities, too: developping applications to run the LHC, to serve our physicist community, etc.
In brief: Make your field of interest a hobby and sign up as a student with CERN! A good master is an excellent start, but hands-on experience you just can get on the job.
I've come to CERN for my master thesis in telecom engineering, as a technical student, I worked on optical links for CMS. I did also my PhD at CERN, in digital microelectronics. now I am hired as an applied physicist and work in the LHC control room. There is a very wide range of options here!
Q: What is the purpose of a firwall? A: To let traffic through. If we don't need to let traffic through, we would cut the cable...
We use a standard firewall configuration to control traffic. As we serve a world-wide community, there are hundreds of computing services open to the Internet: web servers, SSH gateways, Windows Terminal Servers, conference room booking systems, document stores, web mail servers, etc...
Like any other organization worldwide, these are permanently probed for weaknesses. We monitor this activiely and, so far, successful attacks (detected by us ;-) have been rare.
I love working here, the research and the international environment in particular. my schedule is messy when we have beam, as I take shifts in the control room. the rest of the time, it's normal working hours - which sometimes get extended in case of deadlines that come up.
I live, as many others, close by, so commuting is short (10 minutes). this June many of us are doing bike2work - so I biked in today, the weather is beautiful. my personal interests fit in well also. skiing is close by in between Swiss and French Alps, and the Geneva yoga festival is great too.
I can't wait to see the beam at high energy, early next year. on the accelerator side, we have a few things that might cause issues that we'll have to work on: electron clouds in the beam pipe, Unidentified Falling Objects, beam instabilities, … it'll be fun! (gp)
Finding new particles that could confirm the predictions of the theories I am working on! That will allow us to finally know what is the correct direction to go beyond the Standard Model of particle physics! (nm)
Today's fundamental research is based on tools which require investment (that has always been the case , but in the past this funding was at the level of individual research institutes or of national initiative). Today not even 'continental' investment can cope with the needs of fundamental research. So if we want to progress further there will be need of substantial investment. For example in the last 12 months it has been decided to exploit fully the potential of the LHC accelerator :in order to exploit the potential of the improved accelerator we will need improved detectors. These do not come for free ...
So yes, funding will be essential for fully exploiting what the LHC accelerator can tell us ( and that might be a lot ... as there a lot of unaswered questions like what is dark matter, why is our universe made of matter and so on ) (TC)
We have to measure all the Higgs properties as precisely as we can! We also have new models to go beyond the Standard Model of particle physics and there are active searches ongoing at CERN to look for new particles. (nm)
The field has been 'regulating' its market since ever: we have statistics showing that less than 40% of the PHDs formed in CERN experiments remain in the Academic/Research world. The rest find quickly their way into the 'outside' world. The main reasons we have identified for the popularity of our students are : not being afraid of trying to solve problems, no matter how difficult, ability to evolve in a multinational/multicultural environment, ability to work in large teams, being exposed to state of the art software/electronic techniques. (TC)
Some personal view: The World Wide Web created 25 years ago at CERN (WWW: “Let’s share What We knoW”) provided a global platform and unique opportunity for people to communicate, to collaborate and to share at unprecedented scale and speed. The accessibility and openness of the internet are crucial to enabling new ideas to flourish and compete with the long-standing traditions and to ensure that the evolution of the web continues to proceed at a pace limited only by our ideas. However, with this capability comes considerable responsibility with all of us – whether politicians, lawmakers, scientists or citizens – to preserve an open internet and a free web for the benefit of humankind.
Actually, I followed a typical CERN career-by-chance. I am educated physicist, turned into control system engineer, investigated security stances of control systems, and then joined the security team with what I learned. Most of the time, I coordinate implementations, provide guidance, and help people to make their products more secure. It's more facilitating and enabling than hard-core security. However, my team consists of white hats who know the techniques much better than I do :-)
At the LHC, from a beam dump to the next stable beams it takes at least 2 hours. then we keep the beams in collisions for up to 10-15 hours. then start over. at the experiments, they pack up data from the collisions for years. (gp)
There are many, and that's why we do research! A few examples: how to explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry. Or what is dark matter. Or are there more than 3 quark/lepton families? And many more! (nm)
The beam gets dumped whenever it is not interesting for physics anymore (and the operators decide to extract it), or whenever anything on the accelerator side goes wrong (and Machine Protection takes care of extracting it automatically).
By means of a special set of magnets, with very fast rise times, the beam gets extracted from the main ring to a special place, the beam dump itself, where it hits a huge block of graphite and scatters its energy.
Last updated: 2014-06-14 10:45 UTC This post was generated by a robot! Send all complaints to epsy.
I have the issue that my node's synchronisation is very slow. I am 14 weeks behind and it estimates to take 12 weeks to get synced. The synchronisation rate per hour is only 0,01%. I have a fast How can I speed up Bitcoin Core syncing? It's take about 2 hours to sync a week and it is still 26 weeks behind... it didn't take this long when I first got it so is there anyway to speed up this process? 48 comments. share. save. hide. report. 64% Upvoted. This thread is archived. New comments cannot be posted and votes cannot be cast. Sort by. best . View discussions in 1 other community ... The biggest pain point of using Bitcoin-Qt (Bitcoin Core) prior to v 0.10 as your wallet is it takes forever to sync to get the complete block chain. A fully functioning node must have the Bitcoin-Qt (Bitcoin Core) client on a machine instance with the complete block chain.Note that this speed-up tip will no longer be necessary for Bitcoin Core version 0.10 (click here for Bitcoin Core version ... Synchronizing Bitcoin Wallets – How To Speed Up Synchronization? 23 Aug 2017. Increase slow download and sync of bitcoin blockchain on Mac. When you are experiencing a slow download and synchronisation of the bitcoin blockchain this little. How to install Ethereum and Mist with Fast Sync + Add EtherDelta and. Ethereum Mist Wallet – How to fix when blockchain won't sync up. First Press ... It’s common for full nodes on high-speed connections to use 200 gigabytes upload or more a month. Download usage is around 20 gigabytes a month, plus around an additional 340 gigabytes the first time you start your node. 6 hours a day that your full node can be left running. (You can do other things with your computer while running a full node.) More hours would be better, and best of all ...
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